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逻辑学 第三篇 概念论(212-213)

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§ 212



But what virtually happens in the realising of the End is that the one sided subjectivity and the show of objective independence confronting it are both cancelled. In laying hold of the means, the notion constitutes itself the very implicit essence of the object. In the mechanical and chemical processes, the independence of the object has been already dissipated implicitly, and in the course of their movement under the dominion of the End, the show of that independence, the negative which confronts the Notion, is got rid of. But in the fact that the End achieved is characterised only as a Means and a material, this object, viz. the teleological, is there and then put as implicitly null, and only 'ideal'. This being so, the antithesis between form and content has also vanished. While the End by the removal and absorption of all form characteristics coalesces with itself, the form as self identical is thereby put as the content, so that the notion, which is the action of form, has only itself for content. Through this process, therefore, there is made explicitly manifest what was the notion of design: viz. the implicit unity of subjective and objective is now realised. And this is the Idea.



This finitude of the End consists in the circumstance, that, in the process of realising it, the material, which is employed as a means, is only externally subsumed under it and made conformable to it. But, as a matter of fact, the object is the notion implicitly: and thus when the notion, in the shape of End, is realised in the object, we have but the manifestation of the inner nature of the object itself. Objectivity is thus, as it were, only a covering under which the notion lies concealed. Within the range of the finite we can never see or experience that the End has been really secured. The consummation of the infinite End, therefore, consists merely in removing the illusion which makes it seem yet unaccomplished. The Good, the absolutely Good, is eternally accomplishing itself in the world: and the result is that it need not wait upon us, but is already by implication, as well as in full actuality, accomplished. This is the illusion under which we live. It alone supplies at the same time the actualising force on which the interest in the world reposes.



In the course of its process the Idea creates that illusion, by setting an antithesis to confront it; and its action consists in getting rid of the illusion which it has created. Only out of this error does the truth arise. In this fact lies the reconciliation with error and with finitude. Error or other being, when superseded, is still a necessary dynamic element of truth: for truth can only be where it makes itself its own result.





  §212



  〔有限目的的活动,就其仅为主观性和客观性的相对的全体而言,又陷于无穷的递进,由于这种活动即是一种矛盾,它使它在活动过程里所扬弃的主客对立,又重新产生出来。〕但在目的实现的本身所产生的结果是:片面的主观性和那当前的客观独立性与主观性相对立的假象,都同样被扬弃了。在把捉工具的过程中,概念建立起自身为客体的自在存在着的本质。在机械和化学的过程中,客体的独立性业已自在地消逝了。而且在它们受目的支配的发展过程中,它们的独立性的假象,或对概念的否定性也被扬弃了。但就那实现了的目的仅仅被规定为手段或材料的事实看来,则这目的所追求的客体,立刻就被设定为一个本身不实的,只是观念性的东西。



  这样一来,形式与内容的对立也随之而消失了。当目的由于扬其它的形式规定〔的片面性〕而与它自身相结合时,它那自身同一的形式因之便成为有内容的了,所以那作为形式自身活动力量的概念,仅以它自身为内容。通过这种过程,目的这一概念的性质一般便确立起来了,主观性与客观性的自在存在着的统一,现在就被设定为自为存在着的统一了。这就是理念。



  附释:目的的有限性在于当实现目的时,那被利用来作为手段的材料,只是外在地从属于目的的实现,成为遵循目的的工具。但事实上客体就是潜在的概念,当概念作为目的,实现其自身于客体时,这也不过是客体自身的内在性质的显现罢了。这样看来,客观性好象只是一个外壳,这里面却隐藏着概念。在有限事物的范围内,我们不能看见或体察出,目的是真正达到了的。无限目的的实现这一看法的好处只在于去掉一种错觉:即人们总以为目的好象老没有实现似的。善,绝对的善,永恒地在世界上完成其自身,其结果是,善或至善用不着等待我们去实现它,它就已经自在并自为地在世界上实现其自身了。我们总是生活在这种错觉中,但这错觉同时也是一种推进力量,而我们对这世界的兴趣即建筑在这种力量上面。理念在它发展的过程里,自己造成这种错觉,并建立一个对立者以反对之,但理念的行动却在于扬弃这种错觉。只有由于这种错误,真理才会出现。而且在这一事实里面复包含有真理与错误,无限性与有限性的和解。扬弃了的错误或异在,本身即是达到真理的一个必然的环节,因为真理作为真理,只是由于它自身造成它自己的结果。







Third Subdivision: The Notion The Idea Development of The Idea Life Cognition Absolute Idea



§ 213



The Idea is truth in itself and for itself the absolute unity of the notion and objectivity. Its 'ideal' content is nothing but the notion in its detailed terms: its 'real' content is only the exhibition which the notion gives itself in the form of external existence, while yet, by enclosing this shape in its ideality, it keeps it in its power, and so keeps itself in it. The definition, which declares the Absolute to be the Idea, is itself absolute. All former definitions come back to this. The Idea is the And yet, again, everything actual, in so far as it is true, is the Idea, and has its truth by and in virtue of the Idea alone. Every individual being is some one aspect of the Idea: for which, therefore, yet other actualities are needed, which in their turn appear to have a self subsistence of their own. It is only in them altogether and in their relation that the notion is realised.



The individual by itself does not correspond to its notion. It is this limitation of its existence which constitutes the finitude and the ruin of the individual.



The Idea itself is not to be taken as an idea of something or other, any more than the notion is to be taken as merely a specific notion. The Absolute is the universal and one idea, which, by an act of 'judgement', particularises itself to the system of specific ideas; which after all are constrained by their nature to come back to the one idea where their truth lies. As issued out of this 'judgement' the Idea is in the first place only the one universal substance: but its developed and genuine actuality is to be as a subject and in that way as mind.



Because it has no existence for starting point and point d'appui, the Idea is frequently treated as a mere logical form. Such a view must be abandoned to those theories which ascribe so called reality and genuine actuality to the existent thing and all the other categories which have not yet penetrated as far as the Idea. It is no less false to imagine the Idea to be mere abstraction. It is abstract certainly, in so far as everything untrue is consumed in it: but in its own self it is essentially concrete, because it is the free notion giving character to itself, and that character, reality. It would be an abstract form, only if the notion, which is its principle, were taken as an abstract unity, and not as the negative return of it into self and as the subjectivity which it really is.



Truth is at first taken to mean that I know how something is. This is truth, however, only in reference to consciousness; it is formal truth, bare correctness. Truth in the deeper sense consists in the identity between objectivity and the notion. It is in this deeper sense of truth that we speak of a true state, or of a true work of art. These objects are true, if they are as they ought to be, i.e. if their reality corresponds to their notion. When thus viewed, to be untrue means much the same as to be bad. A bad man is an untrue man, a man who does not behave as his notion or his vocation requires. Nothing however can subsist, if it be wholly devoid of identity between the notion and reality. Even bad and untrue things have being, in so far as their reality still, somehow, conforms to their notion. Whatever is thoroughly bad or contrary to the notion is for that very reason on the way to ruin. It is by the notion alone that the things in the world have their subsistence; or, as it is expressed in the language of religious conception, things are what they are, only in virtue of the divine and thereby Creative thought which dwells within them.



When we hear the Idea spoken of, we need not imagine something far away beyond this mortal sphere. The Idea is rather what is completely present: and it is found, however confused and degenerated, in every consciousness. We conceive the works to ourselves as a great totality which is created by God, and so created that in it God has manifested himself to us. We regard the world also as ruled by Divine Providence: implying that the scattered and divided parts of the world are continually brought back, and made conformable, to the unity from which they have issued. The purpose of philosophy has always been the intellectual ascertainment of the Ideal; and everything deserving the name of philosophy has constantly been based on the consciousness of an absolute unity where the understanding sees and accepts only separation. It is too late now to ask for proof that the Idea is the truth. The proof of that is contained in the whole deduction and development of thought up to this point. The Idea is the result of this course of dialectic. Not that it is to he supposed that the idea is mediate only, i.e. mediated through something else than itself. It is rather its own result, and being so, is no less immediate than mediate. The stages hitherto considered, viz. those of Being and Essence, as well as those of Notion and of Objectivity, are not, when so distinguished, something permanent, resting upon themselves. They have proved to be dialectical; and their only truth is that they are dynamic elements of the idea.





C.理念(Die Idee)





§213



  理念是自在自为的真理,是概念和客观性的绝对统一。理念的理想的内容不是别的,只是概念和概念的诸规定;理念的实际的内容只是概念自己的表述,象概念在外部的定在的形式里所表现的那样。而且概念还包括这种外部形态于它的理想性中,使它受自己的支配,从而保持它自身于其中。



  〔说明〕"绝对就是理念"这一界说,本身即是绝对的。前此的一切界说,都要归结到这一界说。理念就是真理;因为真理即是客观性与概念相符合。——这并不是指外界事物符合我的观念。因为我的观念只不过是,我这个人所具有的不错的观念罢了。理念所处理的对象并不是个人,也不是主观观念,也不是外界事物。但是一切现实的事物,只要它们是真的,也就是理念。而且一切现实事物之所以具有真理性,都只是通过理念并依据理念的力量。个体的存在只是理念的某一方面,因此它还需要别的现实性,而这些现实性,同样也好象特别地有它们的独立存在似的。只有在现实事物的总合中和在它们的相互联系中概念才会实现。那孤立的个体事物是不符合它自己的概念的;它的特定存在的这种局限性构成它的有限性并且导向它的毁灭。



  理念本身不可了解为任何某物的理念,同样,概念也不可单纯理解为特定的概念。绝对是普遍的和唯一的理念,这理念由于判断的活动特殊化其自身成为一些特定理念的系统,但是这些特定理念之所以成为系统,也只是在于它们能返回到那唯一的理念,返回到它们的真理。从这种判断的过程去看理念,理念最初是唯一的、普遍的实体,但却是实体的发展了的真正的现实性,因而成为主体,所以也就是精神。



  由于理念不以实存为其出发点,又不以实存为其支撑点,因此便常常被当作单纯是一种形式的逻辑的东西。人们一方面把实际存在着的事物以及许多尚未达到理念的范畴,均给予所谓实在或真正现实性的徽号;另一方面又以为理念仅仅是抽象的。其实这两种意见都是错误的,必须放弃的。就理念作为能消溶或吞并一切不真之物而言,它诚然是抽象的。但理念自身本质上却是具体的,因为它是自己决定自己,从而自己实现自己的自由的概念。如果概念,作为理念的原则,仅被当作是抽象的统一,而不是象它本来应该那样,被认作是经过否定的过程而回归其自身的主观性,那么,理念也会只是抽象的形式。



  附释:人们最初把真理了解为:我知道某物是如何存在的。不过这只是与意识相联系的真理,或者只是形式的真理,只是"不错"罢了。按照较深的意义来说,真理就在于客观性和概念的同一。譬如,当我们说到一个真的国家或一件真的艺术品,都是指这种较深意义的真理而言。这些对象是真的,如果它们是它们所应是的那样,即它们的实在性符合于它们的概念。照这样看来,所谓不真的东西也就是在另外情况下叫做坏的东西。坏人就是不真的人,就是其行为与他的概念或他的使命不相符合的人。然而完全没有概念和实在性的同一的东西,就不可能有任何存在。甚至坏的和不真的东西之所以存在也还是因为它们的某些方面多少符合于它们的概念。那彻底的坏东西或与概念相矛盾的东西,因此即是自己走向毁灭的东西。惟有概念才是世界上的事物之所以保持其存在的原则,或者用宗教上的语言来说,事物之所以是事物仅由于内在于事物的神圣的思想、因而亦即创造的思想有以使然。



  一说到理念,我们用不着想象一些遥远的和超越人世的东西。理念毋宁是彻底地现在的,甚至即存在于每一个人的意识里,无论他的意识是如何混乱衰退。我们设想这世界是上帝所创造的伟大的整体,而且由于世界是这样被创造的,所以上帝即在这世界内显示其自身给我们。同样,我们认为这世界是由神意所主宰,这就包含着这样的意思,即世界内那些彼此分离的外在的事物,将永恒地从统一中发展出来并返回到统一,遵循着统一。——来自哲学的工作即在于对理念予以思维的掌握。凡是配得上哲学这一名称的学说,总是以绝对统一的意识为基础,这种统一的意识只有在理智看来才是分离开的。——要求为"理念就是真理"这一命题寻求证明,并不须等待到现在才提出来的;前此全部思维的一切发挥和发展,都包含着对这一命题的证明。理念就是这全部过程的进展的成果。这并不是说理念似乎只是一个通过自身以外的他物而发展出来的中介性的东西。反之,理念乃是它自己发展的成果,因为如此,它既是直接的,又是经过中介的。前面所考察过的存在和本质以及概念和客观性这些阶段,它们的这种差别,并不是固定的,也不是以自身为基础的东西,而是证明其自身为辩证的,并且它们的真理只在于它们是理念的各个环节。
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